Home A True Multi-Cannabinoid Formula

References:

CBD

1.) Relief for Neuropathic / Chronic Pain

Mandolini, G. M., Lazzaretti, M., Pigoni, A., Oldani, L., Delvecchio, G., & Brambilla, P. (2018). Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 1-9.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260390

Mücke, M., Phillips, T., Radbruch, L., Petzke, F., & Häuser, W. (2018). Cannabis‐based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. The Cochrane Library.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29513392

Jensen, B., Chen, J., Furnish, T., & Wallace, M. (2015). Medical marijuana and chronic pain: a review of basic science and clinical evidence. Current pain and headache reports19(10), 50.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26325482

Burns, T. L., & Ineck, J. R. (2006). Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain. Annals of Pharmacotherapy40(2), 251-260.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449552

Brunt, T. M., van Genugten, M., Höner-Snoeken, K., van de Velde, M. J., & Niesink, R. J. (2014). Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology34(3), 344-349.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747979

2.) Sleep Disorders

Babson, K. A., Sottile, J., & Morabito, D. (2017). Cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: a review of the literature. Current psychiatry reports19(4), 23.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28349316

Fitzcharles, M. A., Baerwald, C., Ablin, J., & Häuser, W. (2016). Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids in chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases (fibromyalgia syndrome, back pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis). Der Schmerz30(1), 47-61.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26767993

3.) Multiple Sclerosis

Iskedjian, M., Bereza, B., Gordon, A., Piwko, C., & Einarson, T. R. (2007). Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Current medical research and opinion23(1), 17-24.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK74699/

Lakhan, S. E., & Rowland, M. (2009). Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. BMC neurology9(1), 59.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961570

Wade, D. T., Collin, C., Stott, C., & Duncombe, P. (2010). Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Sativex (nabiximols), on spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal16(6), 707-714.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558502

Wright, S., Duncombe, P., & Altman, D. G. (2012). Assessment of blinding to treatment allocation in studies of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in people with multiple sclerosis: a new approach. Trials13(1), 189.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487910/

McPartland, J. M., Guy, G. W., & Di Marzo, V. (2014). Care and feeding of the endocannabinoid system: a systematic review of potential clinical interventions that upregulate the endocannabinoid system. PloS one9(3), e89566.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951193/

4.) Antioxidant Effects

Cuba, L. F., Salum, F. G., Cherubini, K., & Figueiredo, M. A. Z. (2017). Cannabidiol: an alternative therapeutic agent for oral mucositis?. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics42(3), 245-250.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28191662

Martin-Santos, R., Fagundo, A. B., Crippa, J. A., Atakan, Z., Bhattacharyya, S., Allen, P., … & McGuire, P. (2010). Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature. Psychological medicine40(3), 383-398.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19627647

Ashton, C. H., Moore, P. B., Gallagher, P., & Young, A. H. (2005). Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential. Journal of Psychopharmacology19(3), 293-300.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15888515

Antipsychotic Properties of CBD (Schizophrenia)

Iseger TA, Bossong MG (March 2015). “A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans”. Schizophrenia Research. 162 (1–3): 153–61.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25667194

Iseger, T. A., & Bossong, M. G. (2015). A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophrenia research162(1-3), 153-161.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25667194

Bostwick, J. M. (2012, February). Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 172-186). Elsevier.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538401/

IBS / Gut Inflammation

Couch, D. G., Maudslay, H., Doleman, B., Lund, J. N., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2018). The use of cannabinoids in colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflammatory bowel diseases24(4), 680-697.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29562280

Epilepsy

Stockings, E., Zagic, D., Campbell, G., Weier, M., Hall, W. D., Nielsen, S., … & Degenhardt, L. (2018). Evidence for cannabis and cannabinoids for epilepsy: a systematic review of controlled and observational evidence. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry89(7), 741-753.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29511052

Reddy, D. S., & Golub, V. M. (2016). The pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy for epilepsy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics357(1), 45-55.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26787773

High Blood Pressure & Heart Rate

Sultan, S. R., Millar, S. A., England, T. J., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the haemodynamic effects of Cannabidiol. Frontiers in pharmacology8, 81.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286481

Addiction

Hurd, Y. L., Yoon, M., Manini, A. F., Hernandez, S., Olmedo, R., Ostman, M., & Jutras-Aswad, D. (2015). Early phase in the development of cannabidiol as a treatment for addiction: opioid relapse takes initial center stage. Neurotherapeutics12(4), 807-815.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269227

Prud’homme, M., Cata, R., & Jutras-Aswad, D. (2015). Cannabidiol as an intervention for addictive behaviors: a systematic review of the evidence. Substance abuse: research and treatment9, SART-S25081.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444130/

Anxiety & Depression

Marco, E. M., García-Gutiérrez, M. S., Bermúdez-Silva, F. J., Moreira, F., Guimarães, F., Manzanares, J., & Viveros, M. P. (2011). Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: in search of a neurobiological basis for detrimental and potential therapeutic effects. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience5, 63.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186912/

Zhornitsky, S., & Potvin, S. (2012). Cannabidiol in humans—the quest for therapeutic targets. Pharmaceuticals5(5), 529-552.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24281562

Crippa, J. A., Derenusson, G. N., Chagas, M. H., Atakan, Z., Martín-Santos, R., Zuardi, A. W., & Hallak, J. E. (2012). Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature. Harm reduction journal9(1), 7.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294246/

Memory

Stern, C. A., Gazarini, L., Takahashi, R. N., Guimaraes, F. S., & Bertoglio, L. J. (2012). On disruption of fear memory by reconsolidation blockade: evidence from cannabidiol treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology37(9), 2132.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549120

Diabetes

Liou, G. I. (2010). Diabetic retinopathy: role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation. World journal of diabetes1(1), 12.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083879/

Weight Loss

Le Foll, B., Trigo, J. M., Sharkey, K. A., & Le Strat, Y. (2013). Cannabis and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?. Medical hypotheses80(5), 564-567.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410498

CBG

5.) Gut Inflammation (Colitis)

Couch, D. G., Maudslay, H., Doleman, B., Lund, J. N., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2018). The use of cannabinoids in colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflammatory bowel diseases24(4), 680-697.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29562280

6.) IBS

Borrelli, F., Fasolino, I., Romano, B., Capasso, R., Maiello, F., Coppola, D., … & Izzo, A. A. (2013). Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Biochemical pharmacology85(9), 1306-1316.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415610

7.) Acne & Skin Diseases

Giacoppo, S., Gugliandolo, A., Trubiani, O., Pollastro, F., Grassi, G., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2017). Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264. 7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study. European journal of histochemistry: EJH61(1).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344

Pucci, M., Rapino, C., Di Francesco, A., Dainese, E., D’addario, C., & Maccarrone, M. (2013). Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids. British journal of pharmacology170(3), 581-591.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791996/

8.) Neuroprotective Properties for Huntington's, Parkinson's & Alzheimer's

Fernández-Ruiz, J; Moro, M. A; Martínez-Orgado, J (2015). “Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Stroke/Brain Trauma: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications”. Neurotherapeutics. 12 (4): 793–806. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0381-7

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260390

Valdeolivas, S., Navarrete, C., Cantarero, I., Bellido, M. L., Muñoz, E., & Sagredo, O. (2015). Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington’s disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice. Neurotherapeutics12(1), 185-199.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252936

Diabetes

Smeriglio, A., Giofrè, S. V., Galati, E. M., Monforte, M. T., Cicero, N., D’Angelo, V., … & Circosta, C. (2018). Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Fitoterapia127, 101-108.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29427593

Antioxidant

Giacoppo, S., Gugliandolo, A., Trubiani, O., Pollastro, F., Grassi, G., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2017). Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264. 7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study. European journal of histochemistry: EJH61(1).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348416

Anti-Bacterial

Appendino, G., Gibbons, S., Giana, A., Pagani, A., Grassi, G., Stavri, M., … & Rahman, M. M. (2008). Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure− activity study. Journal of natural products71(8), 1427-1430.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481

Psoriasis

Wilkinson, J. D., & Williamson, E. M. (2007). Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. Journal of dermatological science45(2), 87-92.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157480

Glaucoma

Colasanti, B. K., Craig, C. R., & Allara, R. D. (1984). Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol. Experimental eye research39(3), 251-259.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6499952

Cancer

Baek, S. H., Kim, Y. O., Kwag, J. S., Choi, K. E., & Jung, W. Y. (1998). Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified Lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Archives of pharmacal research21(3), 353.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9875457

Borrelli, F., Pagano, E., Romano, B., Panzera, S., Maiello, F., Coppola, D., … & Izzo, A. A. (2014). Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid. Carcinogenesis35(12), 2787-2797.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269802

THCV

9.) Anxiety

O’brien, L. D., Wills, K. L., Segsworth, B., Dashney, B., Rock, E. M., Limebeer, C. L., & Parker, L. A. (2013). Effect of chronic exposure to rimonabant and phytocannabinoids on anxiety-like behavior and saccharin palatability. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior103(3), 597-602.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103902

10.) Diabetes

Jadoon, K. A., Ratcliffe, S. H., Barrett, D. A., Thomas, E. L., Stott, C., Bell, J. D., … & Tan, G. D. (2016). Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabivarin on glycemic and lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study. Diabetes Care, dc160650.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573936

Horváth, B., Mukhopadhyay, P., Haskó, G., & Pacher, P. (2012). The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications. The American journal of pathology180(2), 432-442.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349875/

Wargent, E. T., Zaibi, M. S., Silvestri, C., Hislop, D. C., Stocker, C. J., Stott, C. G., … & Cawthorne, M. A. (2013). The cannabinoid Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity. Nutrition & diabetes3(5), e68.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671751/

11.) Concentration

Deiana, S., Watanabe, A., Yamasaki, Y., Amada, N., Arthur, M., Fleming, S., … & Platt, B. (2012). Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive–compulsive behaviour. Psychopharmacology219(3), 859-873.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796370

12.) Neuroprotective Effects for Parkinson's

García C, Palomo-Garo C, García-Arencibia M, Ramos J, Pertwee R, Fernández-Ruiz J. Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;163(7):1495-1506. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01278.x.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21323909

THC Antagonist

Thomas, A., Stevenson, L. A., Wease, K. N., Price, M. R., Baillie, G., Ross, R. A., & Pertwee, R. G. (2005). Evidence that the plant cannabinoid Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonist. British journal of pharmacology146(7), 917-926.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16205722

Pertwee, R. G., Thomas, A., Stevenson, L. A., Ross, R. A., Varvel, S. A., Lichtman, A. H., … & Razdan, R. K. (2007). The psychoactive plant cannabinoid, Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol, is antagonized by Δ8‐and Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin in mice in vivo. British journal of pharmacology150(5), 586-594.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245367

Pertwee, R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin. British journal of pharmacology153(2), 199-215.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17828291

Ma, Y. L., Weston, S. E., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2008). The phytocannabinoid Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the cerebellum. British journal of pharmacology154(1), 204-215.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311186

Epilepsy

Izzo, A. A., Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Di Marzo, V., & Mechoulam, R. (2009). Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends in pharmacological sciences30(10), 515-527.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729208

Hill, A. J., Weston, S. E., Jones, N. A., Smith, I., Bevan, S. A., Williamson, E. M., … & Whalley, B. J. (2010). Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats. Epilepsia51(8), 1522-1532.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196794

Inflammation

Bátkai, S., Mukhopadhyay, P., Horváth, B., Rajesh, M., Gao, R. Y., Mahadevan, A., … & Maccarrone, M. (2012). Δ8‐Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors. British journal of pharmacology165(8), 2450-2461.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21470208

Bolognini, D., Costa, B., Maione, S., Comelli, F., Marini, P., Di Marzo, V., … & Pertwee, R. G. (2010). The plant cannabinoid Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin can decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice. British journal of pharmacology160(3), 677-687.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590571

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Hill, A. J., Williams, C. M., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2012). Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders. Pharmacology & therapeutics133(1), 79-97.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21924288

Schizophrenia

Cascio, M. G., Zamberletti, E., Marini, P., Parolaro, D., & Pertwee, R. G. (2015). The phytocannabinoid, Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5‐HT1A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects. British journal of pharmacology172(5), 1305-1318.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363799

Acne & Skin Treatment

Oláh, A., Markovics, A., Szabó‐Papp, J., Szabó, P. T., Stott, C., Zouboulis, C. C., & Bíró, T. (2016). Differential effectiveness of selected non‐psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Experimental dermatology25(9), 701-707.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344/

CBDV

13.) Anticonvulsant Effects for Epilepsy

Amada N, Yamasaki Y, Williams CM, Whalley BJ (2013). “Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression”. PeerJ. 1: e214. doi:10.7717/peerj.214

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840466/

Iannotti, F. A., Hill, C. L., Leo, A., Alhusaini, A., Soubrane, C., Mazzarella, E., … & Stephens, G. J. (2014). Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability. ACS chemical neuroscience5(11), 1131-1141.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25029033

Hill, A. J., Mercier, M. S., Hill, T. D. M., Glyn, S. E., Jones, N. A., Yamasaki, Y., … & Williams, C. M. (2012). Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat. British journal of pharmacology167(8), 1629-1642.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970845

Rosenberg, E. C., Patra, P. H., & Whalley, B. J. (2017). Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection. Epilepsy & Behavior70, 319-327.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28190698

Gaston, T. E., & Friedman, D. (2017). Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior70, 313-318.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087250

Hill, T. D. M., Cascio, M. G., Romano, B., Duncan, M., Pertwee, R. G., Williams, C. M., … & Hill, A. J. (2013). Cannabidivarin‐rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor‐independent mechanism. British journal of pharmacology170(3), 679-692.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902406

14.) Nausea

Rosenberg, E. C., Tsien, R. W., Whalley, B. J., & Devinsky, O. (2015). Cannabinoids and epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics12(4), 747-768.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604191/

15.) Acne & Skin Diseases

Oláh, A., Markovics, A., Szabó‐Papp, J., Szabó, P. T., Stott, C., Zouboulis, C. C., & Bíró, T. (2016). Differential effectiveness of selected non‐psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Experimental dermatology25(9), 701-707.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344

16.) Neurodegenerative Diseases

Hill, A. J., Williams, C. M., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2012). Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders. Pharmacology & therapeutics133(1), 79-97.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21924288